Wildlife is the animals, plants, and other organisms that exist in their natural environment free of human intervention. Wild species form a rich diversity of life that provides essential functions in ecosystems such as forests, deserts, woods, wetlands, grasslands, and oceans. Billions of people in developed and developing nations depend daily on wildlife for food, materials, medicine, recreation, inspiration, and other vital contributions to human well-being. The accelerating global biodiversity crisis, with a million or more species at risk of extinction, threatens these important services.
The most important factor in the survival of any species is its habitat. Wildlife is affected by climate change, deforestation, pollution, hunting, fishing, and poaching. Despite the efforts of governments and Non-Government organizations, Wildlife is still on the verge of extinction.
Various methods are being adopted to protect Wildlife including in-situ conservation measures. However, the most effective way to conserve wildlife is through ex-situ conservation measures. Wildlife is a national resource that plays an essential role in the ecological balance of the nation. It is important to save the wildlife for our own sake.
Many states have laws to control the numbers of certain types of animals that impact property. For example, state programs manage problem animals such as Canada geese, coyotes, and beavers. They also manage ungulates, such as wild horses and burros on public lands. Some ungulates are overpopulated and can cause damage to homes, farms, or businesses. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) reports that in 2006, wild horse and burro populations on nine western states exceeded their appropriate management levels (AMLs).
There were times when humans and wildlife lived side by side with little interference from the other. As time passed by, the population of humans increased rapidly and this increased human demands on nature. Animals were hunted for their meat, fur, and skin. Some wild animals were used as slaves like elephants and mongooses, while other dangerous species such as lions, bears, and birds of prey were kept in cages for entertainment.
As a result of such demand and environmental pollution, a number of wild animals are on the verge of extinction. The government has tried to control this situation by introducing different wildlife protection laws and funding antipoaching brigades. However, the problem will not get solved unless people understand the importance of wildlife. The exploitation of wildlife can harm the economic health of a country by decreasing tourism, and also by creating an imbalance in the ecology of the area. It is also possible that such exploitation could lead to the spread of deadly diseases in humans such as zoonotic disease.